"I have defined as a 'geographical landscape' a part of the earth's surface which, according to its external image and the interaction of its phenomena and the internal and external positional relationships, forms a spatial unit of a certain character, and which, at geographical, natural boundaries, merges into landscapes of a different character' TROLL 1950; 1967). Quote from TROLL 1968: 4)
The scientific approach analyzes a landscape with regard to the processes and factors that have led to the current state ("characteristic/structure") of landscape, as well as with regard to changes caused by natural processes (e.g. geomorphological processes) and by humans. Thus, it aims at the geological and geographical characteristics or structure and changes of the landscape, which, in contrast to the social science approach, is however, clearly measurable / measurable.