Different aspects have so far had a negative impact on the growth of electric vehicles.
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Acquisition costs of electric vehicles: "At present, the acquisition costs of an electric vehicle are typically around 60% (or 10,000 Euros) higher than those of a conventional vehicle". (Döring/Aigner-Walder, 2017)
Expansion of the charging station network: By the year 2020, the NPE has identified a need for 70,000 public charging points and 7,100 fast charging columns, which, among other things, ensure long journeys along motorways (NPE 2011).
Range of e-vehicles: "One problem here is the spatial range of pure e-vehicles (BEV, FCEV), which is currently 150 to 200 kilometres at medium speed before the battery has to be recharged. Compared to a fuel-powered vehicle (current range: 600 to 1,000 kilometres), electric vehicles are therefore at a considerable competitive disadvantage." (Döring/Aigner-Walder, 2017) While the average range was 150 km in 2011 and 200 km in 2014, it had already risen to 300 km by 2017. A range of 400 km is expected for 2020.
Charging times: "E-vehicles need 8 to 12 hours to recharge the battery at the household socket. Even in the case of fast charging, the charging process usually takes around 30 minutes". (Döring/Aigner-Walder 2012: 114)
Climate and relief: "The range of an electric vehicle depends on topographical and climatic factors. The more mountainous the route and the more extreme the outside temperature, the lower the range.” (Döring/Aigner-Walder, 2017)
Acceptance by the population: Studies show that the willingness of customers to make additional investments in "green technology" is still comparatively low.
Buyer potential: E-vehicle buyers have certain characteristics that we will discuss later.
Standardization and compatibility: The implementation of a charging infrastructure is made more difficult by the manufacturers' different standards. There are different types of charging stations on the market: DC (Direct Current) fast charging stations, which are usually available at electric charging stations and with a charging capacity of up to 50 kW deliver twenty times the power of a conventional household socket, and the normal AC (Alternating Current) charging stations, which take considerably longer to charge and are particularly suitable for multi-storey car parks and private car parks. As the owner of an electric vehicle, it is necessary to have adapters in the vehicle for the different types in order to be able to charge at each charging station. The Standardization Road Map provides a comprehensive overview of completed, ongoing and future standardization activities in the field of electro mobility (NPE 2017). The technical specifications for new public charging points to be set up have been regulated in Germany since March 2016 by the Charging Column Ordinance.
Small selection of models: According to NPE (2016), more than 40 vehicle models were available on the market across all vehicle segments in May 2016.
Economic aspects of e-mobility are the direct usage and operating costs as well as the level of acquisition costs compared to other types of drive, while the range and safety of e-vehicles and the availability of the required charging infrastructure are important technical factors influencing individual user behaviour (Döring/Aigner-Walder, 2017).
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Bill
Professur für Geodäsie und Geoinformatik
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