A second example of an extensive existing object-based geodata base is the Digital Landscape Model (DLM) in the Official Topographic-Cartographic Information System (ATKIS, cf. GeoInfoDok, AdV (2009) and Chapter 9 in Bill, 2016), which offers a data base comparable to the previously used topographic maps 1:25,000 to 1:1,000,000 throughout Germany. DLM describe the topographic objects of the landscape and the relief of the earth's surface in vector format.
From a geotopographic point of view, a landscape is characterized by several object areas (fixed points, settlement, traffic, ... relief, vegetation areas). These are modelled hierarchically refined by object groups and object types, so that e.g. the object area "traffic" is divided into the object types road, rail ... up to traffic installations. Road traffic object types are then roads, paths and squares which are geometrically described by their central axes or circles and which are captured from maps and aerial photographs by the state surveying offices. These object types are enriched and described with thematic data (called attributes). Common attributes for roads are e.g. their dedication, their meaning and the number of lanes, taken from the street cadaster.
The objects are assigned to a specific object type, defined in the ATKIS Object Type Catalogue, and defined by their spatial position, their geometric type, descriptive attributes and relationships to other objects (relations). Each object has a unique identification number throughout Germany. The following landscape models are currently defined as model types in the AAA scheme.
Thus common applications from the municipal level over the state level up to the federal level are served with geotopographic basic data.