Biomass - Origin and current utilisation

What types of biomass are there and how can they be used energetically and/or materially?
Which biomasses are interesting for me in my field of work/study/research?

The consideration of biomass can be structured differently. One way of categorising biomass is based on the sector in which the biomass contributes to the final energy consumption (e.g. industry, households, transport); another is based on the form in which the biomass is available at the end of conversion: as electricity, heat or fuel.

In this part of the course, however, the focus is predominantly on the origin of the biomass. As can be seen from the following figure, we distinguish between those biomasses that are grown directly for energy or material use (Designated Crops (NawaRo), see also chapter "Sustainable Supply") and those that are produced as residues, by-products or waste. These two types of origin are described in more detail below.

Biomass categories, own image

As described above, biomass can be used differently depending on the properties of the raw material. The literature primarily distinguishes between feed and food production and material and energetic use. Some sources consider feed and food production as part of material use. For later potential analyses, all non-energy uses (e.g. feed, bedding, etc.) are summarised under the term "material use".