Geodata management comprises both the aspects of data modeling already addressed above and the concrete implementation of data structures in the database as well as the provision of methods for manipulating this data (creating, inserting, deleting, changing data records, etc.). The information available in the maps, card indexes and other collections must be described in the application context and stored in a structured form. Each geoobject is described in GIS by its components. Accordingly, the GIS must be able to model the real world geometrically, topologically, thematically and temporally, to enrich it with metadata and to manage it in databases. A comprehensive overview can be found in Bill, 2016, Chapter 6.
For the administration of vector data today's GIS mainly use (object-)relational databases, which are extended by functions for handling geometries. These databases then support the storage of the coordinates of point, line and polygon geometries as well as the calculation of spatial indices for quick access to the geometries. From the user's point of view, the geometries then present themselves as a further attribute field alongside thematic, and temporal attributes in the tables for managing the geoobjects. Furthermore, special tables can be created to manage the topological relationships within and between the geoobjects.
From the point of view of information technology, the administration of spatial data represents a non-standard application of database management systems (DBMS). Standard applications of DBMS are to be seen in reservation and banking system, in the material order and production process, whereas the areas of the CAD, the geo-information systems and the printed circuit board design are considered as non-standard applications (Bill, 2016, S. 435 ff.). Database systems that adequately support the storage of geodata and geoobjects as well as the processing of spatial queries are called geo or spatial database systems.
According to Brinkhoff (2013), a geodatabase system must possess a number of capabilities that are generally available today in object-relational databases with spatial extensions (cf. Bill, 2016, p. 444 ff.):