Bio-based: on the basis of biological resources BMBF and BMEL 2014

Bio-economy: knowledge-based production and use of renewable resources to provide products, processes and services in all economic sectors within a sustainable economic system. The bio-economy concept encompasses all economic sectors and associated service sectors that produce, process, use and trade renewable resources such as plants, animals and micro-organisms and their products. Synonym: biobased economy BMBF and BMEL 2014

Bioenergy: renewable energy source. The energy sources are derived from biomass. Bioenergy can provide electricity, heat and fuels. BMBF and BMEL 2014

Biofuels: Liquid or gaseous fuels produced from biomass. Examples are biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. BMU

Biomass: organic mixtures of substances bound in or produced by living organisms BMBF and BMEL 2014

Biotechnology: The application of science and technology to living organisms and their components, products and models for the purpose of modifying living or non-living matter to produce goods, substances and products, including the extension of knowledge and the provision of services. BMBF and BMEL 2014

Calorific value: "In contrast to the heat value, the calorific value Ho (qgr) is defined as the amount of heat released during the complete oxidation of a fuel, which becomes available when the condensation heat of the water vapour formed during combustion is utilised. For this purpose, the exhaust gas must be cooled so that the water vapour can condense. [...] Compared to the calorific value, the heat yield increases accordingly under these conditions. [...]" (Kaltschmitt et al. 2016, p.607)

Calorific value: "The net calorific value (qnet) is the amount of heat released during the complete oxidation of a fuel without taking into account the condensation heat (evaporation heat) of the water vapour in the exhaust gas. [...]" (Kaltschmitt et al. 2016, p. 607)

Cascading use: single or multiple material use of a raw material in products (e.g. through paper recycling) and final energetic use BMBF and BMEL 2014

Combined heat and power (CHP): Simultaneous generation of electricity and heat in an electricity generation plant. BMU

Designated crops (NaWaRo): agricultural and forestry products that are not used as food or animal feed, but as raw materials for industrial products or for generating energy BMBF and BMEL 2014

Dry mass is the total mass of a raw material minus the water bound in the raw material (→ see Fresh mass, water content). To be able to compare raw materials, the conversion between fresh mass and dry mass takes place via the water content: dry mass [tTM] = (100% - water content [%]) * fresh mass [tFM]. In the forestry sector and for wood biomass, the unit tonnes absolute dry [tatro] is used for quantities. (Kaltschmitt et al. 2016)

dry matter See dry matter; unit: tonnes tTS

Energy Crops: Plants cultivated and used for bioenergy production, in addition to maize, rapeseed, cereals and sugar beet, poplars, the mixed silphy or wild plants BMBF and BMEL 2014

Final energy: Part of the primary energy reaching the consumer after deduction of transmission and conversion losses, such as district heating, electricity, petrol, heating oil, natural gas, biogas and hydrogen. BMU

Fossil fuels: Energy raw materials that have been produced over millions of years from biomass and consist of carbon compounds of varying lengths: Oils, coals, gases.

Fresh mass is the total mass of a raw material including the water bound in the raw material (→ see dry mass or dry substance, water content). To be able to compare raw materials, the conversion between fresh mass and dry mass is made via the water content: dry mass [tTM] = (100% - water content [%]) * fresh mass [tFM] (Kaltschmitt et al. 2016)

Greenhouse gases: Atmospheric trace gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect and can be of both natural and anthropogenic origin, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), Schwefelhexafluorid (SF6), hydrogen-containing fluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorierte Hydrocarbons (PFCs) BMU

Gross power consumption: Sum of total domestic electricity generation and Stromflüsse from abroad, less Stromflüsse to abroad. BMU

Joint production: Simultaneous manufacture of several products in a single production process BMBF and BMEL 2014

Mega gram or megagram: In English literature, "mega gram" is used instead of tons as the unit of mass. The megagram is abbreviated with Mg, where M stands for 106 and Mg therefore for 1,000,000 g. The unit of mass is Mg.

Primary energy consumption: Total energy sources used, including changes in inventories and the balance of purchases and deliveries. BMU

Primary energy: The calculable energy content of a naturally occurring energy source before it is converted into another form of energy. BMU

Renewable Energies Act (EEG): The "Act for the Priority of Renewable Energies" of the year 2000 contains the obligation for grid operators to give priority to renewable energies. It also regulates the (degressive) remuneration rates for the individual types of generation and the procedure for allocating the resulting additional costs to all electricity consumers. Amendments to the Act came into force in 2004, 2009, 2012 and 2017. Since 2017, the level of remuneration for EEG electricity has no longer been set by the state, but determined by means of tenders on the market. BMU

Renewable energies: Energy sources that are available for an infinite period of time according to human time scales. The three original sources are: Solar radiation, geothermal energy and tidal power. These can be used either directly or indirectly in the form of biomass, wind, hydropower, ambient heat and wave energy. BMU

short rotation plantation: Field on which fast-growing woods such as poplars and willows are cultivated. These permanent crops are ready for harvest after a few years BMBF and BMEL 2014

Sustainability: Conception of a sustainable development of the economic, ecological and social dimension of human existence. Sustainable development satisfies the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs BMBF and BMEL 2014

water content: The percentage of the fresh mass to which the raw material consists of water. (Kaltschmitt et al. 2016)